Discovery of CRISPR and its function
1993 - 2005 - - Francisco Mojica, University of Alicante, Spain
Francisco Mojica was the first researcher to characterize what is now called a CRISPR locus, reported in 1993. He worked on them throughout the 1990s, and in 2000, he recognized that what had been reported as disparate repeat sequences actually shared a common set of features, now known to be hallmarks of CRISPR sequences (he coined the term CRISPR through correspondence with Ruud Jansen, who first used the term in print in 2002). In 2005 he reported that these sequences matched snippets from the genomes of bacteriophage (Mojica et al., 2005). This finding led him to hypothesize, correctly, that CRISPR is an adaptive immune system. Another group, working independently, published similar findings around this same time (Pourcel et al., 2005)
Discovery of Cas9 and PAM
May, 2005 — Alexander Bolotin, French National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA)
Bolotin was studying the bacteria Streptococcus thermophilus, which had just been sequenced, revealing an unusual CRISPR locus (Bolotin et al., 2005). Although the CRISPR array was similar to previously reported systems, it lacked some of the known cas genes and instead contained novel cas genes, including one encoding a large protein they predicted to have nuclease activity, which is now known as Cas9. Furthermore, they noted that the spacers, which have homology to viral genes, all share a common sequence at one end. This sequence, the protospacer adjacent motif (PAM), is required for target recognition.
Hypothetical scheme of adaptive immunity
March, 2006 — Eugene Koonin, US National Center for Biotechnology Information, NIH
Koonin was studying clusters of orthologous groups of proteins by computational analysis and proposed a hypothetical scheme for CRISPR cascades as bacterial immune system based on inserts homologous to phage DNA in the natural spacer array, abandoning previous hypothesis that the Cas proteins might comprise a novel DNA repair system. (Makarova et al., 2006)
Experimental demonstration of adaptive immunity
March, 2007 — Philippe Horvath, Danisco France SAS
S. thermophilus is widely used in the dairy industry to make yogurt and cheese, and scientists at Danisco wanted to explore how it responds to phage attack, a common problem in industrial yogurt making. Horvath and colleagues showed experimentally that CRISPR systems are indeed an adaptive immune system: they integrate new phage DNA into the CRISPR array, which allows them to fight off the next wave of attacking phage (Barrangou et al., 2007). Furthermore, they showed that Cas9 is likely the only protein required for interference, the process by which the CRISPR system inactivates invading phage, details of which were not yet known.
Spacer sequences are transcribed into guide RNAs
August, 2008 — John van der Oost, University of Wageningen, Netherlands
Scientists soon began to fill in some of the details on exactly how CRISPR-Cas systems “interfere” with invading phage. The first piece of critical information came from John van der Oost and colleagues who showed that in E-scherichia coli, spacer sequences, which are derived from phage, are transcribed into small RNAs, termed CRISPR RNAs (crRNAs), that guide Cas proteins to the target DNA (Brouns et al., 2008).
CRISPR acts on DNA targets
December, 2008 — Luciano Marraffini and Erik Sontheimer, Northwestern University, Illinois
The next key piece in understanding the mechanism of interference came from Marraffini and Sontheimer, who elegantly demonstrated that the target molecule is DNA, not RNA (Marraffini and Sontheimer, 2008). This was somewhat surprising, as many people had considered CRISPR to be a parallel to eukaryotic RNAi silencing mechanisms, which target RNA. Marraffini and Sontheimer explicitly noted in their paper that this system could be a powerful tool if it could be transferred to non-bacterial systems. (It should be noted, however, that a different type of CRISPR system can target RNA (Hale et al., 2009)).
Cas9 cleaves target DNA
December, 2010 — Sylvain Moineau, University of Laval, Quebec City, Canada
Moineau and colleagues demonstrated that CRISPR-Cas9 creates double-stranded breaks in target DNA at precise positions, 3 nucleotides upstream of the PAM (Garneau et al., 2010). They also confirmed that Cas9 is the only protein required for cleavage in the CRISPR-Cas9 system. This is a distinguishing feature of Type II CRISPR systems, in which interference is mediated by a single large protein (here Cas9) in conjunction with crRNAs.
Discovery of tracrRNA for Cas9 system
March, 2011 — Emmanuelle Charpentier, Umea University, Sweden and University of Vienna, Austria
The final piece to the puzzle in the mechanism of natural CRISPR-Cas9-guided interference came from the group of Emmanuelle Charpentier. They performed small RNA sequencing on Streptococcus pyogenes, which has a Cas9-containing CRISPR-Cas system. They discovered that in addition to the crRNA, a second small RNA exists, which they called trans-activating CRISPR RNA (tracrRNA) (Deltcheva et al., 2011). They showed that tracrRNA forms a duplex with crRNA, and that it is this duplex that guides Cas9 to its targets.
CRISPR systems can function heterologously in other species
July, 2011 — Virginijus Siksnys, Vilnius University, Lithuania
Siksnys and colleagues cloned the entire CRISPR-Cas locus from S. thermophilus (a Type II system) and expressed it in E. coli (which does not contain a Type II system), where they demonstrated that it was capable of providing plasmid resistance (Sapranauskas et al., 2011). This suggested that CRISPR systems are self-contained units and verified that all of the required components of the Type II system were known.
Biochemical characterization of Cas9-mediated cleavage
September, 2012 — Virginijus Siksnys, Vilnius University, Lithuania
Taking advantage of their heterologous system, Siksnys and his team purified Cas9 in complex with crRNA from the E. coli strain engineered to carry the S. thermophilus CRISPR locus and undertook a series of biochemical experiments to mechanistically characterize Cas9’s mode of action (Gasiunas et al., 2012).They verified the cleavage site and the requirement for the PAM, and using point mutations, they showed that the RuvC domain cleaves the non-complementary strand while the HNH domain cleaves the complementary site. They also noted that the crRNA could be trimmed down to a 20-nt stretch sufficient for efficient cleavage. Most impressively, they showed that they could reprogram Cas9 to a target a site of their choosing by changing the sequence of the crRNA.
June, 2012 — Charpentier and Jennifer Doudna, University of California, Berkeley
Similar findings as those in Gasiunas et al. were reported at almost the same time by Emmanuelle Charpentier in collaboration with Jennifer Doudna at the University of California, Berkeley (Jinek et al., 2012). Charpentier and Doudna also reported that the crRNA and the tracrRNA could be fused together to create a single, synthetic guide, further simplifying the system. (Although published in June 2012, this paper was submitted after Gasiunas et al.)
CRISPR-Cas9 harnessed for genome editing
January, 2013 — Feng Zhang, Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, McGovern Institute for Brain Research at MIT, Massachusetts
Zhang, who had previously worked on other genome editing systems such as TALENs, was first to successfully adapt CRISPR-Cas9 for genome editing in eukaryotic cells (Cong et al., 2013). Zhang and his team engineered two different Cas9 orthologs (from S. thermophilus and S. pyogenes) and demonstrated targeted genome cleavage in human and mouse cells. They also showed that the system (i) could be programmed to target multiple genomic loci, and (ii) could drive homology-directed repair. Researchers from George Church’s lab at Harvard University reported similar findings in the same issue of Science (Mali et al., 2013).
Barrangou, R., Fremaux, C., Deveau, H., Richards, M., Boyaval, P., Moineau, S., Romero, D.A., and Horvath, P. (2007). CRISPR provides acquired resistance against viruses in prokaryotes. Science 315, 1709–1712.
Bolotin, A., Quinquis, B., Sorokin, A.,and Ehrlich, S.D. (2005). Clustered regularly interspaced short palindrome repeats (CRISPRs) have spacers of extrachromosomal origin. Microbiology 151, 2551–2561.
Brouns, S.J., Jore, M.M., Lundgren, M., Westra, E.R., Slijkhuis, R.J., Snijders, A.P., Dickman, M.J., Makarova, K.S., Koonin, E.V., van der Oost, J. (2008) Small CRISPR RNAs guide antiviral defense in prokaryotes. Science 321, 960-964.
Cong, L., Ran, F.A., Cox, D., Lin, S., Barretto, R., Habib, N., Hsu, P.D., Wu, X., Jiang, W., Marraffini, L.A., et al. (2013). Multiplex genome engineering using CRISPR/Cas systems. Science 339, 819–823.
Deltcheva, E., Chylinski, K., Sharma, C.M., Gonzales, K., Chao, Y., Pirzada, Z.A., Eckert, M.R., Vogel, J., and Charpentier, E. (2011). CRISPR RNA maturation by trans-encoded small RNA and host factor RNase III. Nature 471, 602–607.
Gasiunas, G., Barrangou, R., Horvath, P., and Siksnys, V. (2012). Cas9–crRNA ribonucleoprotein complex mediates specific DNA cleavage for adaptive immunity in bacteria. Pnas 109, E2579–E2586.
Hale, C.R., Zhao, P., Olson, S., Duff, M.O., Graveley, B.R., Wells, L., Terns, R.M., and Terns, M.P. (2009). RNA-Guided RNA Cleavage by a CRISPR RNA-Cas Protein Complex. Cell 139, 945–956.
Jinek, M., Chylinski, K., Fonfara, I., Hauer, M., Doudna, J.A., and Charpentier, E. (2012). A programmable dual-RNA-guided DNA endonuclease in adaptive bacterial immunity. Science 337, 816–821.
Makarova, K.S., Grishin, N.V., Shabalina, S.A., Wolf, Y.I., Koonin, E.V. (2006). A putative RNA-interference-based immune system in prokaryotes: computational analysis of the predicted enzymatic machinery, functional analogies with eukaryotic RNAi, and hypothetical mechanisms of action. Biology Direct 2006, 1:7.
Mali, P., Yang, L., Esvelt, K.M., Aach, J., Guell, M., DiCarlo, J.E., Norville, J.E., and Church, G.M. (2013). RNA-guided human genome engineering via Cas9. Science 339, 823–826.
Marraffini, L.A., and Sontheimer, E.J. (2008). CRISPR interference limits horizontal gene transfer in staphylococci by targeting DNA. Science 322, 1843–1845.
Mojica, F.J.M., D ez-Villase or, C.S., Garc a-Mart nez, J.S., and Soria, E. (2005). Intervening Sequences of Regularly Spaced Prokaryotic Repeats Derive from Foreign Genetic Elements. J Mol Evol 60, 174–182.
Pourcel, C., Salvignol, G., and Vergnaud, G. (2005). CRISPR elements in Yersinia pestis acquire new repeats by preferential uptake of bacteriophage DNA, and provide additional tools for evolutionary studies. Microbiology 151, 653–663.
Sapranauskas, R., Gasiunas, G., Fremaux, C., Barrangou, R., Horvath, P., and Siksnys, V. (2011). The Streptococcus thermophilus CRISPR/Cas system provides immunity in Escherichia coli. Nucl. Acids Res. 39, gkr606–gkr9282.