Diversity and Complexity of the Large Surface Protein Family in the Compacted Genomes of Multiple Species.
, a major opportunistic pathogen in patients with a broad range of immunodeficiencies, contains abundant surface proteins encoded by a multicopy gene family, termed the major surface glycoprotein (Msg) gene superfamily. This superfamily has been identified in all species characterized to date, highlighting its important role in biology. In this report, through a comprehensive and in-depth characterization of 459 genes from 7 species, we demonstrate, for the first time, the phylogeny and evolution of conserved domains in Msg proteins and provide a detailed description of the classification, unique characteristics, and phylogenetic relatedness of five Msg families. We further describe, for the first time, the relative expression levels of individual families in two rodent species, the substantial variability of the repertoires in from laboratory and wild rats, and the distinct features of the expression site for the classic genes in from 8 mammalian host species. Our analysis suggests multiple functions for this superfamily rather than just conferring antigenic variation to allow immune evasion as previously believed. This study provides a rich source of information that lays the foundation for the continued experimental exploration of the functions of the Msg superfamily in biology. continues to be a major cause of disease in humans with immunodeficiency, especially those with HIV/AIDS and organ transplants, and is being seen with increasing frequency worldwide in patients treated with immunodepleting monoclonal antibodies. Annual health care associated with pneumonia costs ∼$475 million dollars in the United States alone. In addition to causing overt disease in immunodeficient individuals, can cause subclinical infection or colonization in healthy individuals, which may play an important role in species preservation and disease transmission. Our work sheds new light on the diversity and complexity of the superfamily and strongly suggests that the versatility of this superfamily reflects multiple functions, including antigenic variation to allow immune evasion and optimal adaptation to host environmental conditions to promote efficient infection and transmission. These findings are essential to consider in developing new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.
|Year of Publication||
2020 Mar 03
|PubMed Central ID||