Defining the landscape of ATP-competitive inhibitor resistance residues in protein kinases.
Kinases are involved in disease development and modulation of their activity can be therapeutically beneficial. Drug-resistant mutant kinases are valuable tools in drug discovery efforts, but the prediction of mutants across the kinome is challenging. Here, we generate deep mutational scanning data to identify mutant mammalian kinases that drive resistance to clinically relevant inhibitors. We aggregate these data with subsaturation mutagenesis data and use it to develop, test and validate a framework to prospectively identify residues that mediate kinase activity and drug resistance across the kinome. We validate predicted resistance mutations in CDK4, CDK6, ERK2, EGFR and HER2. Capitalizing on a highly predictable residue, we generate resistance mutations in TBK1, CSNK2A1 and BRAF. Unexpectedly, we uncover a potentially generalizable activation site that mediates drug resistance and confirm its impact in BRAF, EGFR, HER2 and MEK1. We anticipate that the identification of these residues will enable the broad interrogation of the kinome and its inhibitors.
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Nat Struct Mol Biol