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Nucleic Acids Res DOI:10.1093/nar/gkt484

The genome of Anopheles darlingi, the main neotropical malaria vector.

Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsMarinotti, O, Cerqueira, GC, de Almeida, LGonzaga Pa, Ferro, MInês Tira, Loreto, ELucio da S, Zaha, A, Teixeira, SMR, Wespiser, AR, Silva, AAlmeida E, Schlindwein, ADaiane, Pacheco, ACarolina L, da Silva, ALuiz da Co, Graveley, BR, Walenz, BP, Lima, Bde Araujo, Ribeiro, CAlexandre, Nunes-Silva, CGustavo, de Carvalho, CRoberto, Soares, CMaria de A, de Menezes, CBeatriz Af, Matiolli, C, Caffrey, D, Araújo, DAntonio M, de Oliveira, DMagalhães, Golenbock, D, Grisard, ECarlos, Fantinatti-Garboggini, F, de Carvalho, FMarques, Barcellos, FGomes, Prosdocimi, F, May, G, Junior, GMartins de, Guimarães, GMoura, Goldman, GHenrique, Padilha, IQM, Batista, Jda Silva, Ferro, JAparecido, Ribeiro, JMC, Fietto, JLopes Rang, Dabbas, KMaia, Cerdeira, L, Agnez-Lima, LFassarella, Brocchi, M, de Carvalho, MOliveira, Teixeira, Mde Melo, Maia, Mde Mascena, Goldman, MHelena S, Schneider, MPaula Cruz, Felipe, MSueli Soar, Hungria, M, Nicolás, MFabiana, Pereira, M, Montes, MAlejandro, Cantão, ME, Vincentz, M, Rafael, MSilva, Silverman, N, Stoco, PHermes, Souza, RCelso, Vicentini, R, Gazzinelli, RTostes, Neves, Rde Oliveir, Silva, R, Astolfi-Filho, S, Maciel, TEduardo Fe, Urményi, TP, Tadei, WPedro, Camargo, EPlessmann, de Vasconcelos, ATereza Rib
JournalNucleic Acids Res
Date Published2013 Aug
KeywordsAnimals, Anopheles, Brazil, Chromosomes, Insect, DNA Transposable Elements, Evolution, Molecular, Female, Genetic Variation, Genome, Insect, Host-Parasite Interactions, Insect Proteins, Insect Vectors, Insecticide Resistance, Insecticides, Malaria, Male, Molecular Sequence Annotation, Phylogeny, Synteny, Transcriptome

Anopheles darlingi is the principal neotropical malaria vector, responsible for more than a million cases of malaria per year on the American continent. Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago (mya) and successfully adapted to the New World environment. Here we present an annotated reference A. darlingi genome, sequenced from a wild population of males and females collected in the Brazilian Amazon. A total of 10 481 predicted protein-coding genes were annotated, 72% of which have their closest counterpart in Anopheles gambiae and 21% have highest similarity with other mosquito species. In spite of a long period of divergent evolution, conserved gene synteny was observed between A. darlingi and A. gambiae. More than 10 million single nucleotide polymorphisms and short indels with potential use as genetic markers were identified. Transposable elements correspond to 2.3% of the A. darlingi genome. Genes associated with hematophagy, immunity and insecticide resistance, directly involved in vector-human and vector-parasite interactions, were identified and discussed. This study represents the first effort to sequence the genome of a neotropical malaria vector, and opens a new window through which we can contemplate the evolutionary history of anopheline mosquitoes. It also provides valuable information that may lead to novel strategies to reduce malaria transmission on the South American continent. The A. darlingi genome is accessible at


Alternate JournalNucleic Acids Res.
PubMed ID23761445
PubMed Central IDPMC3753621
Grant ListR01 AI060025 / AI / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
2R01GM077117-04A1 / GM / NIGMS NIH HHS / United States