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Emerg Infect Dis DOI:10.3201/eid1701.100961

Endurance, refuge, and reemergence of dengue virus type 2, Puerto Rico, 1986-2007.

Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsMcElroy, KL, Santiago, GA, Lennon, NJ, Birren, BW, Henn, MR, Muñoz-Jordán, JL
JournalEmerg Infect Dis
Date Published2011 Jan
KeywordsDengue, Dengue Virus, Disease Outbreaks, Evolution, Molecular, Genetic Variation, Humans, Incidence, Phylogeny, Puerto Rico

To study the evolution of dengue virus (DENV) serotype 2 in Puerto Rico, we examined the genetic composition and diversity of 160 DENV-2 genomes obtained through 22 consecutive years of sampling. A clade replacement took place in 1994-1997 during a period of high incidence of autochthonous DENV-2 and frequent, short-lived reintroductions of foreign DENV-2. This unique clade replacement was complete just before DENV-3 emerged. By temporally and geographically defining DENV-2 lineages, we describe a refuge of this virus through 4 years of low genome diversity. Our analyses may explain the long-term endurance of DENV-2 despite great epidemiologic changes in disease incidence and serotype distribution.


Alternate JournalEmerging Infect. Dis.
PubMed ID21192856
PubMed Central IDPMC3204641
Grant ListHHSN266200400001C / AO / NIAID NIH HHS / United States
HHSN266200400001C / / PHS HHS / United States