Curve-based multivariate distance matrix regression analysis: application to genetic association analyses involving repeated measures.
Most, if not all, human phenotypes exhibit a temporal, dosage-dependent, or age effect. Despite this fact, it is rare that data are collected over time or in sequence in relevant studies of the determinants of these phenotypes. The costs and organizational sophistication necessary to collect repeated measurements or longitudinal data for a given phenotype are clearly impediments to this, but greater efforts in this area are needed if insights into human phenotypic expression are to be obtained. Appropriate data analysis methods for genetic association studies involving repeated or longitudinal measures are also needed. We consider the use of longitudinal profiles obtained from fitted functions on repeated data collections from a set of individuals whose similarities are contrasted between sets of individuals with different genotypes to test hypotheses about genetic influences on time-dependent phenotype expression. The proposed approach can accommodate uncertainty of the fitted functions, as well as weighting factors across the time points, and is easily extended to a wide variety of complex analysis settings. We showcase the proposed approach with data from a clinical study investigating human blood vessel response to tyramine. We also compare the proposed approach with standard analytic procedures and investigate its robustness and power via simulation studies. The proposed approach is found to be quite flexible and performs either as well or better than traditional statistical methods.
|Year of Publication||
2010 Jul 07
|PubMed Central ID||
T32-DA-007315 / DA / NIDA NIH HHS / United States
U19 AG-023122-01 / AG / NIA NIH HHS / United States
T32-GM-08666 / GM / NIGMS NIH HHS / United States
U01 DA-024417-01 / DA / NIDA NIH HHS / United States
P50 MH-081755-01 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
N01 MH-22005 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
1 R01 MH-078151-01A1 / MH / NIMH NIH HHS / United States
UL1 RR-025774 / RR / NCRR NIH HHS / United States