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Nature DOI:10.1038/nature04789

Genetic evidence for complex speciation of humans and chimpanzees.

Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2006
AuthorsPatterson, N, Richter, DJ, Gnerre, S, Lander, ES, Reich, D
JournalNature
Volume441
Issue7097
Pages1103-8
Date Published2006/06/29
ISSN0028-0836
Abstract

The genetic divergence time between two species varies substantially across the genome, conveying important information about the timing and process of speciation. Here we develop a framework for studying this variation and apply it to about 20 million base pairs of aligned sequence from humans, chimpanzees, gorillas and more distantly related primates. Human-chimpanzee genetic divergence varies from less than 84% to more than 147% of the average, a range of more than 4 million years. Our analysis also shows that human-chimpanzee speciation occurred less than 6.3 million years ago and probably more recently, conflicting with some interpretations of ancient fossils. Most strikingly, chromosome X shows an extremely young genetic divergence time, close to the genome minimum along nearly its entire length. These unexpected features would be explained if the human and chimpanzee lineages initially diverged, then later exchanged genes before separating permanently.

URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature04789
DOI10.1038/nature04789
Pubmed

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16710306?dopt=Abstract