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Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol DOI:10.1101/cshperspect.a003459

Nodal morphogens.

Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2009
AuthorsSchier, AF
JournalCold Spring Harb Perspect Biol
Date Published2009 Nov
KeywordsAnimals, Body Patterning, Diffusion, Endoderm, Humans, Kinetics, Left-Right Determination Factors, Mesoderm, MicroRNAs, Models, Biological, Morphogenesis, Nodal Protein, Protein Processing, Post-Translational, Signal Transduction, Transforming Growth Factor beta

Nodal signals belong to the TGF-beta superfamily and are essential for the induction of mesoderm and endoderm and the determination of the left-right axis. Nodal signals can act as morphogens-they have concentration-dependent effects and can act at a distance from their source of production. Nodal and its feedback inhibitor Lefty form an activator/inhibitor pair that behaves similarly to postulated reaction-diffusion models of tissue patterning. Nodal morphogen activity is also regulated by microRNAs, convertases, TGF-beta signals, coreceptors, and trafficking factors. This article describes how Nodal morphogens pattern embryonic fields and discusses how Nodal morphogen signaling is modulated.


Alternate JournalCold Spring Harb Perspect Biol
PubMed ID20066122
PubMed Central IDPMC2773646
Grant ListR01 GM056211 / GM / NIGMS NIH HHS / United States