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Nature DOI:10.1038/nature09298

Integrating common and rare genetic variation in diverse human populations.

Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2010
AuthorsInternational HapMap 3, C, Altshuler, DM, Gibbs, RA, Peltonen, L, Altshuler, DM, Gibbs, RA, Peltonen, L, Dermitzakis, E, Schaffner, SF, Yu, F, Peltonen, L, Dermitzakis, E, Bonnen, PE, Altshuler, DM, Gibbs, RA, de Bakker, PI, Deloukas, P, Gabriel, SB, Gwilliam, R, Hunt, S, Inouye, M, Jia, X, Palotie, A, Parkin, M, Whittaker, P, Yu, F, Chang, K, Hawes, A, Lewis, LR, Ren, Y, Wheeler, D, Gibbs, RA, Muzny, DM, Barnes, C, Darvishi, K, Hurles, M, Korn, JM, Kristiansson, K, Lee, C, McCarrol, SA, Nemesh, J, Dermitzakis, E, Keinan, A, Montgomery, SB, Pollack, S, Price, AL, Soranzo, N, Bonnen, PE, Gibbs, RA, Gonzaga-Jauregui, C, Keinan, A, Price, AL, Yu, F, Anttila, V, Brodeur, W, Daly, MJ, Leslie, S, McVean, G, Moutsianas, L, Nguyen, H, Schaffner, SF, Zhang, Q, Ghori, MJ, McGinnis, R, McLaren, W, Pollack, S, Price, AL, Schaffner, SF, Takeuchi, F, Grossman, SR, Shlyakhter, I, Hostetter, EB, Sabeti, PC, Adebamowo, CA, Foster, MW, Gordon, DR, Licinio, J, Manca, MC, Marshall, PA, Matsuda, I, Ngare, D, Wang, VO, Reddy, D, Rotimi, CN, Royal, CD, Sharp, RR, Zeng, C, Brooks, LD, McEwen, JE
Date Published2010/09/02

Despite great progress in identifying genetic variants that influence human disease, most inherited risk remains unexplained. A more complete understanding requires genome-wide studies that fully examine less common alleles in populations with a wide range of ancestry. To inform the design and interpretation of such studies, we genotyped 1.6 million common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 1,184 reference individuals from 11 global populations, and sequenced ten 100-kilobase regions in 692 of these individuals. This integrated data set of common and rare alleles, called 'HapMap 3', includes both SNPs and copy number polymorphisms (CNPs). We characterized population-specific differences among low-frequency variants, measured the improvement in imputation accuracy afforded by the larger reference panel, especially in imputing SNPs with a minor allele frequency of