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Nature DOI:10.1038/nature10390

The genome of the green anole lizard and a comparative analysis with birds and mammals.

Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2011
AuthorsAlföldi, J, Di Palma, F, Grabherr, M, Williams, C, Kong, L, Mauceli, E, Russell, P, Lowe, CB, Glor, RE, Jaffe, JD, Ray, DA, Boissinot, S, Shedlock, AM, Botka, C, Castoe, TA, Colbourne, JK, Fujita, MK, Moreno, RG, ten Hallers, BF, Haussler, D, Heger, A, Heiman, D, Janes, DE, Johnson, J, de Jong, PJ, Koriabine, MY, Lara, M, Novick, PA, Organ, CL, Peach, SE, Poe, S, Pollock, DD, de Queiroz, K, Sanger, T, Searle, S, Smith, JD, Smith, Z, Swofford, R, Turner-Maier, J, Wade, J, Young, S, Zadissa, A, Edwards, SV, Glenn, TC, Schneider, CJ, Losos, JB, Lander, ES, Breen, M, Ponting, CP, Lindblad-Toh, K
JournalNature
Volume477
Issue7366
Pages587-91
Date Published2011/08/31
ISSN0028-0836
Abstract

The evolution of the amniotic egg was one of the great evolutionary innovations in the history of life, freeing vertebrates from an obligatory connection to water and thus permitting the conquest of terrestrial environments. Among amniotes, genome sequences are available for mammals and birds, but not for non-avian reptiles. Here we report the genome sequence of the North American green anole lizard, Anolis carolinensis. We find that A. carolinensis microchromosomes are highly syntenic with chicken microchromosomes, yet do not exhibit the high GC and low repeat content that are characteristic of avian microchromosomes. Also, A. carolinensis mobile elements are very young and diverse-more so than in any other sequenced amniote genome. The GC content of this lizard genome is also unusual in its homogeneity, unlike the regionally variable GC content found in mammals and birds. We describe and assign sequence to the previously unknown A. carolinensis X chromosome. Comparative gene analysis shows that amniote egg proteins have evolved significantly more rapidly than other proteins. An anole phylogeny resolves basal branches to illuminate the history of their repeated adaptive radiations.

URLhttp://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature10390
DOI10.1038/nature10390
Pubmed

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21881562?dopt=Abstract