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Trends Cell Biol DOI:10.1016/j.tcb.2015.09.002

Diversity Matters: A Revised Guide to Myelination.

Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2016
AuthorsTomassy, GSrubek, Dershowitz, LBowe, Arlotta, P
JournalTrends Cell Biol
Date Published2016 Feb
KeywordsAdult, Animals, Axons, Biological Evolution, Humans, Myelin Sheath, Neurons, Oligodendroglia, Synaptic Transmission

The evolutionary success of the vertebrate nervous system is largely due to a unique structural feature--the myelin sheath, a fatty envelope that surrounds the axons of neurons. By increasing the speed by which electrical signals travel along axons, myelin facilitates neuronal communication between distant regions of the nervous system. We review the cellular and molecular mechanisms that regulate the development of myelin as well as its homeostasis in adulthood. We discuss how finely tuned neuron-oligodendrocyte interactions are central to myelin formation during development and in the adult, and how these interactions can have profound implications for the plasticity of the adult brain. We also speculate how the functional diversity of both neurons and oligodendrocytes may impact on the myelination process in both health and disease.


Alternate JournalTrends Cell Biol.
PubMed ID26442841
PubMed Central IDPMC4727993
Grant ListR01 NS078164 / NS / NINDS NIH HHS / United States