Plasma metabolite profile of legume consumption and future risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Cardiovascular diabetology
Authors
Keywords
Abstract

BACKGROUND: Legume consumption has been linked to a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), while the potential association between plasma metabolites associated with legume consumption and the risk of cardiometabolic diseases has never been explored. Therefore, we aimed to identify a metabolite signature of legume consumption, and subsequently investigate its potential association with the incidence of T2D and CVD.METHODS: The current cross-sectional and longitudinal analysis was conducted in 1833 PREDIMED study participants (mean age 67 years, 57.6% women) with available baseline metabolomic data. A subset of these participants with 1-year follow-up metabolomics data (n = 1522) was used for internal validation. Plasma metabolites were assessed through liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Cross-sectional associations between 382 different known metabolites and legume consumption were performed using elastic net regression. Associations between the identified metabolite profile and incident T2D and CVD were estimated using multivariable Cox regression models.RESULTS: Specific metabolic signatures of legume consumption were identified, these included amino acids, cortisol, and various classes of lipid metabolites including diacylglycerols, triacylglycerols, plasmalogens, sphingomyelins and other metabolites. Among these identified metabolites, 22 were negatively and 18 were positively associated with legume consumption. After adjustment for recognized risk factors and legume consumption, the identified legume metabolite profile was inversely associated with T2D incidence (hazard ratio (HR) per 1 SD: 0.75, 95% CI 0.61-0.94; p = 0.017), but not with CVD incidence risk (1.01, 95% CI 0.86-1.19; p = 0.817) over the follow-up period.CONCLUSIONS: This study identified a set of 40 metabolites associated with legume consumption and with a reduced risk of T2D development in a Mediterranean population at high risk of cardiovascular disease.TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN35739639.

Year of Publication
2024
Journal
Cardiovascular diabetology
Volume
23
Issue
1
Pages
38
Date Published
01/2024
ISSN
1475-2840
DOI
10.1186/s12933-023-02111-z
PubMed ID
38245716
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