COVID-19: From emerging variants to vaccination.

Cytokine & growth factor reviews

The vigorous spread of SARS-CoV-2 resulted in the rapid infection of millions of people worldwide and devastation of not only public healthcare, but also social, educational, and economic infrastructures. The evolution of SARS-CoV-2 over time is due to the mutations that occurred in the genome during each replication. These mutated forms of SARS-CoV-2, otherwise known as variants, were categorized as variants of interest (VOI) or variants of concern (VOC) based on the increased risk of transmissibility, disease severity, immune escape, decreased effectiveness of current social measures, and available vaccines and therapeutics. The swift development of COVID-19 vaccines has been a great success for biomedical research, and billions of vaccine doses, including boosters, have been administered worldwide. BNT162b2 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech), mRNA-1273 (Moderna), ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca), and Janssen (Johnson & Johnson) are the four major COVID-19 vaccines that received early regulatory authorization based on their efficacy. However, some SARS-CoV-2 variants resulted in higher resistance to available vaccines or treatments. It has been four years since the first reported infection of SARS-CoV-2, yet the Omicron variant and its subvariants are still infecting people worldwide. Despite this, COVID-19 vaccines are still expected to be effective at preventing severe disease, hospitalization, and death from COVID. In this review, we provide a comprehensive overview of the COVID-19 pandemic focused on evolution of VOC and vaccination strategies against them.

Year of Publication
Cytokine & growth factor reviews
Date Published
PubMed ID