Broadcasters, receivers, functional groups of metabolites and the link to heart failure progression using polygenic factors.

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In a prospective study with records of heart failure (HF) incidence, we present metabolite profiling data from individuals without HF at baseline. We uncovered the interconnectivity of metabolites using data-driven and causal networks augmented with polygenic factors. Exploring the networks, we identified metabolite broadcasters, receivers, mediators, and subnetworks corresponding to functional classes of metabolites, and provided insights into the link between metabolomic architecture and regulation in health. We incorporated the network structure into the identification of metabolites associated with HF to control the effect of confounding metabolites. We identified metabolites associated with higher or lower risk of HF incidence, the associations that were not confounded by the other metabolites, such as glycine, ureidopropionic and glycocholic acids, and LPC 18:2. We revealed the underlying relationships of the findings. For example, asparagine directly influenced glycine, and both were inversely associated with HF. These two metabolites were influenced by polygenic factors and only essential amino acids which are not synthesized in the human body and come directly from the diet. Metabolites may play a critical role in linking genetic background and lifestyle factors to HF progression. Revealing the underlying connectivity of metabolites associated with HF strengthens the findings and facilitates a mechanistic understanding of HF progression.

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