A Cardiolipin from Induces Antigen-Specific Cytokine Responses.
An systematic phenotypic screen of the mouse gut microbiome for metabolites with an immunomodulatory effect identified as one of only two members with an oversized effect on T-cell populations. Here we report the identification and characterization of a lipid, MiCL-1, as the responsible metabolite. MiCL-1 is an 18:1-16:0 cardiolipin, whose close relatives are found on concave lipid surfaces of both mammals and bacteria. MiCL-1 was synthesized to confirm the structural analysis and functionally characterized in cell-based assays. It has a highly restrictive structure-activity profile, as its chain-switched analog fails to induce responses in any of our assays. MiCL-1 robustly induces the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines like TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-23, but has no detectable effect on the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. As is the case with other recently discovered immunomodulatory lipids, MiCL-1 requires functional TLR2 and TLR1 but not TLR6 in cell-based assays.
|Year of Publication
Journal of the American Chemical Society