The metabolic potential of inflammatory and insulinaemic dietary patterns and risk of type 2 diabetes.


AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diets with higher inflammatory and insulinaemic potential have been associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unknown whether plasma metabolomic profiles related to proinflammatory/hyperinsulinaemic diets and to inflammatory/insulin biomarkers are associated with type 2 diabetes risk.

METHODS: We analysed 6840 participants from the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study to identify the plasma metabolome related to empirical dietary inflammatory pattern (EDIP), empirical dietary index for hyperinsulinemia (EDIH), four circulating inflammatory biomarkers and C-peptide. Dietary intakes were assessed using validated food frequency questionnaires. Plasma metabolomic profiling was conducted by LC-MS/MS. Metabolomic signatures were derived using elastic net regression. Multivariable Cox regression was used to examine associations of the metabolomic profiles with type 2 diabetes risk.

RESULTS: We identified 27 metabolites commonly associated with both EDIP and inflammatory biomarker z score and 21 commonly associated with both EDIH and C-peptide. Higher metabolomic dietary inflammatory potential (MDIP), reflecting higher metabolic potential of both an inflammatory dietary pattern and circulating inflammatory biomarkers, was associated with higher type 2 diabetes risk. The HR comparing highest vs lowest quartiles of MDIP was 3.26 (95% CI 2.39, 4.44). We observed a strong positive association with type 2 diabetes risk for the metabolomic signature associated with EDIP-only (HR 3.75; 95% CI 2.71, 5.17) or inflammatory biomarkers-only (HR 4.07; 95% CI 2.91, 5.69). In addition, higher metabolomic dietary index for hyperinsulinaemia (MDIH), reflecting higher metabolic potential of both an insulinaemic dietary pattern and circulating C-peptide, was associated with greater type 2 diabetes risk (HR 3.00; 95% CI 2.22, 4.06); further associations with type 2 diabetes were HR 2.79 (95% CI 2.07, 3.76) for EDIH-only signature and HR 3.89 (95% CI 2.82, 5.35) for C-peptide-only signature. The diet scores were significantly associated with risk, although adjustment for the corresponding metabolomic signature scores attenuated the associations with type 2 diabetes, these remained significant.

CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION: The metabolomic signatures reflecting proinflammatory or hyperinsulinaemic diets and related biomarkers were positively associated with type 2 diabetes risk, supporting that these dietary patterns may influence type 2 diabetes risk via the regulation of metabolism.

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