Interplay between diet, circulating indolepropionate concentrations and cardiometabolic health in US populations.
OBJECTIVES: To identify indolepropionate (IPA)-predicting gut microbiota species, investigate potential diet-microbiota interactions, and examine the prospective associations of circulating IPA concentrations with type 2 diabetes (T2D) and coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in free-living individuals.DESIGN: We included 287 men from the Men's Lifestyle Validation Study, a substudy of the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS), who provided up to two pairs of faecal samples and two blood samples. Diet was assessed using 7-day diet records. Associations between plasma concentrations of tryptophan metabolites and T2D CHD risk were examined in 13 032 participants from Nurses' Health Study (NHS), NHSII and HPFS.RESULTS: We identified 17 microbial species whose abundance was significantly associated with plasma IPA concentrations. A significant association between higher tryptophan intake and higher IPA concentrations was only observed among men who had higher fibre intake and a higher microbial species score consisting of the 17 species (p-interaction<0.01). Dietary and plasma concentrations of tryptophan and most kynurenine pathway metabolites were positively associated with T2D risk (HR ranged from 1.17 to 1.46) while a significant inverse association was found for IPA (HR (95% CI) 0.70 (0.56 to 0.88)). No associations were found in CHD for any plasma tryptophan metabolites.CONCLUSIONS: Specific microbial species and dietary fibre jointly predicted significantly higher circulating IPA concentrations at higher tryptophan intake. Dietary and plasma tryptophan, as well as its kynurenine pathway metabolites, demonstrated divergent associations from those for IPA, which was significantly predictive of lower risk of T2D.
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