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ACS Chem Neurosci DOI:10.1021/cn500021p

Image-guided synthesis reveals potent blood-brain barrier permeable histone deacetylase inhibitors.

Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2014
AuthorsSeo, YJun, Kang, Y, Muench, L, Reid, A, Caesar, S, Jean, L, Wagner, F, Holson, E, Haggarty, SJ, Weiss, P, King, P, Carter, P, Volkow, ND, Fowler, JS, Hooker, JM, Kim, SWon
JournalACS Chem Neurosci
Date Published2014 Jul 16
KeywordsAnimals, Benzamides, Blood-Brain Barrier, Brain, Capillary Permeability, Carbon Radioisotopes, Drug Evaluation, Female, Histone Deacetylase 1, Histone Deacetylase 2, Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors, Humans, Papio anubis, Positron-Emission Tomography, Radiopharmaceuticals, Recombinant Proteins

Recent studies have revealed that several histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, which are used to study/treat brain diseases, show low blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration. In addition to low HDAC potency and selectivity observed, poor brain penetrance may account for the high doses needed to achieve therapeutic efficacy. Here we report the development and evaluation of highly potent and blood-brain barrier permeable HDAC inhibitors for CNS applications based on an image-guided approach involving the parallel synthesis and radiolabeling of a series of compounds based on the benzamide HDAC inhibitor, MS-275 as a template. BBB penetration was optimized by rapid carbon-11 labeling and PET imaging in the baboon model and using the imaging derived data on BBB penetration from each compound to feed back into the design process. A total of 17 compounds were evaluated, revealing molecules with both high binding affinity and BBB permeability. A key element conferring BBB penetration in this benzamide series was a basic benzylic amine. These derivatives exhibited 1-100 nM inhibitory activity against recombinant human HDAC1 and HDAC2. Three of the carbon-11 labeled aminomethyl benzamide derivatives showed high BBB penetration (∼0.015%ID/cc) and regional binding heterogeneity in the brain (high in thalamus and cerebellum). Taken together this approach has afforded a strategy and a predictive model for developing highly potent and BBB permeable HDAC inhibitors for CNS applications and for the discovery of novel candidate molecules for small molecule probes and drugs.


Alternate JournalACS Chem Neurosci
PubMed ID24780082
PubMed Central IDPMC4102966
Grant List1R01DA030321 / DA / NIDA NIH HHS / United States
/ / Intramural NIH HHS / United States