LINE-1 ORF1p as a candidate biomarker in high grade serous ovarian carcinoma.
Long interspersed element 1 (LINE-1) open reading frame 1 protein (ORF1p) expression is a common feature of many cancer types, including high-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGSOC). Here, we report that ORF1p is not only expressed but also released by ovarian cancer and primary tumor cells. Immuno-multiple reaction monitoring-mass spectrometry assays showed that released ORF1p is confidently detectable in conditioned media, ascites, and patients' plasma, implicating ORF1p as a potential biomarker. Interestingly, ORF1p expression is detectable in fallopian tube (FT) epithelial precursors of HGSOC but not in benign FT, suggesting that ORF1p expression in an early event in HGSOC development. Finally, treatment of FT cells with DNA methyltransferase inhibitors led to robust expression and release of ORF1p, validating the regulatory role of DNA methylation in LINE-1 repression in non-tumorigenic tissue.
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