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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A DOI:10.1073/pnas.2121720119

Cellular and transcriptional diversity over the course of human lactation.

Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication2022
AuthorsNyquist, SK, Gao, P, Haining, TKJ, Retchin, MR, Golan, Y, Drake, RS, Kolb, K, Mead, BE, Ahituv, N, Martinez, ME, Shalek, AK, Berger, B, Goods, BA
JournalProc Natl Acad Sci U S A
Date Published2022 Apr 12
KeywordsBreast Feeding, Female, Humans, Infant, Lactation, Milk, Human

SignificanceHuman breast milk is the nutritional food source evolved specifically to meet the needs of infants, but much remains to be learned about its composition and changes over the course of lactation. Our description of the cellular components of breast milk, their associations with maternal-infant dyad metadata, and quantification of alterations at the gene and pathway levels provide a longitudinal picture of human breast milk cells across lactational time. These results pave the way for improved therapeutic support of healthy lactation and milk production.


Alternate JournalProc Natl Acad Sci U S A
PubMed ID35377806
Grant ListF32-AI136459 / GF / NIH HHS / United States
P30-CA14051 / GF / NIH HHS / United States
1122374 / / National Science Foundation (NSF) /