Click the species name for a description of the organism

Helicobacter canadensis MIT 98-5491

Helicobacter canadensis is an enterohepatic Helicobacter species that lacks urease activity. Initially misidentified as H. pullorum isolates, this bacterium is now known to be a separate species [Fox 2000] associated with diarrhea in humans. Strain LCDC 16143 (ATCC 700968T) was isolated from the feces of a human with diarrhea.

Fox JG, Chien CC, Dewhirst FE, Paster BJ, Shen Z, Melito PL, Woodward DL, Rodgers FG. Helicobacter canadensis sp. nov. isolated from humans with diarrhea as an example of an emerging pathogen. J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Jul;38(7):2546-9. PMID: 10878041 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Helicobacter cinaedi CCUG 18818

Helicobacter cinaedi was first isolated from rectal swabs of homosexual men [Totten 1985]. It is associated with proctitis, procotocolitis, and enteritis, but more frequently causes bacteremia and/or cellulitis or septic arthritis in immunocompromised patients; rarely in immunocompetent individuals. Additional isolates of H. cinaedi from dogs, cats, and Syrian hamsters have been shown to belong to a single species. Originally designated Campylobacter cinaedi, this bacterium is in fact an enterohepatic Helicobacter species. Strain CCUG 18818 was isolated from a rectal swab taken from a homosexual man.

Totten PA, Fennell CL, Tenover FC, Wezenberg JM, Perine PL, Stamm WE, Holmes KK. Campylobacter cinaedi (sp. nov.) and Campylobacter fennelliae (sp. nov.): two new Campylobacter species associated with enteric disease in homosexual men. J Infect Dis. 1985 Jan;151(1):131-9. PMID: 3965584 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Helicobacter pullorum MIT 98-5489

Helicobacter pullorum was designated an enterohepatic Helicobacter species [Stanley 1994] and has been isolated from the liver and intestinal tract of birds as well as from humans with gastroenteritis. One individual also had elevated liver enzymes and hepatomegaly associated with diarrhea. Strain LCDC 15115 was isolated from a human with gastroenteritis.

Stanley J, Linton D, Burnens AP, Dewhirst FE, On SL, Porter A, Owen RJ, Costas M. Helicobacter pullorum sp. nov.-genotype and phenotype of a new species isolated from poultry and from human patients with gastroenteritis. Microbiology. 1994 Dec;140 ( Pt 12):3441-9. PMID: 7533595 [PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Helicobacter bilis ATCC 43879

This strain was originally isolated from a 47-year-old man with a 1-month history of diarrhea, fever, and lower abdominal pain, and designated "Flexispira rappini" [Romero et al. 1988]. Hänninen et al. (2005) proposed to include this taxon in the species Helicobacter bilis, although based on 16S rRNA gene sequence it is one of 10 distinct groups, which has been called Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxon 8 (provisionally Helicobacter rappini) [Dewhirst et al. 2000]. H. rappini has also been isolated from the feces of healthy people, dogs, and mice, as well as from patients with bacteremia. H. bilis and the other taxa include isolates from a wide range of host species, and have been associated with diarrhea, hepatitis, cholangitis, gallstones, liver cancer, and abortion.

Romero S, Archer JR, Hamacher ME, Bologna SM, Schell RF. Case report of an unclassified microaerophilic bacterium associated with gastroenteritis. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Jan;26(1):142-3.

Hänninen ML, Kärenlampi RI, Koort JM, Mikkonen T, Björkroth KJ. Extension of the species Helicobacter bilis to include the reference strains of Helicobacter sp. flexispira taxa 2, 3 and 8 and Finnish canine and feline flexispira strains. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2005 Mar;55(Pt 2):891-8.

Dewhirst FE, Fox JG, Mendes EN, Paster BJ, Gates CE, Kirkbride CA, Eaton KA. 'Flexispira rappini' strains represent at least 10 Helicobacter taxa. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol. 2000 Sep;50 Pt 5:1781-7.

Helicobacter winghamensis ATCC BAA-430

Helicobacter winghamensis is an enterohepatic Helicobacter species isolated from patients with diarrhea, fever, and lower abdominal pain. It is named for the location in Canada where it was first isolated: Wingham, Ontario [Melito 2001]. To date, it has only been isolated from humans.

Melito PL, Munro C, Chipman PR, Woodward DL, Booth TF, Rodgers FG. Helicobacter winghamensis sp. nov., a novel Helicobacter sp. isolated from patients with gastroenteritis. J Clin Microbiol. 2001 Jul;39(7):2412-7.